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Identifying and Protecting Trade Secrets

Written by Gene Quinn
Patent Attorney & Founder of IPWatchdog
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Posted: Apr 7, 2012 @ 7:40 pm
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If you ask the owners of most companies whether they have any intellectual property assets, assuming they know what you are talking about, they are likely to say no.  The problem is that the answer should universally be a resounding YES!  Every company has intellectual property assets.  The name of your company is an asset that can be protected through state and federal trademark registration, and can generate good will, which is potentially the largest asset of any kind that many businesses will have.  Explained in this way many will at least acknowledge that intellectual property assets exist, but the one type of intellectual property that most businesses completely ignore is the trade secret.

It is hard to imagine that any business could ever operate without having protectable trade secrets.  The trouble is that most do not know what can be protected as a trade secret, nor do they know how to protect trade secrets.

A trade secret is defined as any business information that is valuable and that derives its value from remaining a secret.  So what information could be protected via trade secret?  Any information that you would not want a competitor to get their hands on could be a trade secret.

We are not talking about top secret, high-tech blueprints for the next gizmo that will revolutionize the world, although that would certainly qualify as a trade secret.  Something as simple as a customer list, supplier list or information regarding profit margins are all things that could be protected.  After all, who would want their customer lists to fall into the hands of the competition?  What if the competition knew where you purchased your products and exactly what your profit margin was? They could undercut you and price war and fight to retain customers would be on.

Still further, what about your employees?  Employees have access to all kinds of information critical to your business operations.  Of course, there is never a problem until something goes wrong.  But how would you cope if one of your key employees decided one day that they were going to walk out the front door and set up a competing company? Would they be legally able to use all of the information they have obtained while working for you?  Would they be able to contact customers to solicit business?  Would they be able to attempt to hire away your top employees to work for them, leaving you with a shell of a business?

Protecting trade secrets is critically important if for no other reason than making sure that the time, money and energy you spend building your business is not wasted.  If your employees could simply leave without having any contractual obligations that would prevent them from taking information, stealing employees away and/or soliciting your existing customers then they would be able to set up a business and compete with you for a fraction of what it cost you to do the same.  After all, you were the one who spent the time and money for marketing to attract customers in the first place, and you were the one who spent the time and money necessary to train your employees.  Without the cost of acquiring new customers and the costs associated with training employees that new business set up by your former employee would compete with you and have only a fraction of the start-up and overhead costs you faced.  That can make it difficult for any business to keep the doors open.

As you are scrambling to think of all the things that you have that you wish others didn’t know about, keep in mind that once you identify those things the law is going to require you to maintain that valuable business information with reasonable precautions to keep the information a secret.  The key here is “reasonable precautions.”  What is considered legally reasonable will vary depending upon the value of the secret.  So if you have an extraordinarily valuable secret recipe, perhaps the formula for Coca Cola, you would want to employ Mission Impossible type secrecy precautions.

Do you remember in the original Tom Cruise Mission Impossible movie where he was trying to break into CIA headquarters?  There were laser alarms, weight sensitive alarms, heat sensitive alarms and he had to break in through ventilation ducts.  If you have seen the movie you know what I am talking about.  If not, suffice it to say that with extremely valuable information you need to take extreme measures to maintain the secrets.

With most trade secrets you are not going to need Mission Impossible type security.  Keeping customer lists in a file marked “confidential” may be enough, although you can do better.  The trouble with trade secrets is that once the secret is lost so is the asset.  What this means is you never want to do “just enough” to protect the trade secret, you want to do enough to make sure it stays secret. So rather than just stamping a file “confidential,” keep sensitive information in a file marked “confidential” in a file cabinet that is locked, which is in a locked office to which only those who “need to know” have access.  You should probably also stamp the document “confidential” as well in case it ever were to get separated from the file folder.

The more you do to protect your secret information the more the law will be on your side in the event that someone steals the information.  So do what you can.  Passwords, locks, limit access, lock files and treat it like it is valuable. Just don’t leave the information lying around.  You wouldn’t do that to your wallet or jewelry, would you?  So why would you just leave valuable trade secrets lying around for anyone to take?

It is also important for business owners to have written agreements with their employees that address trade secrets and confidential information.  Employees need to be apprised of the requirements to keep confidential information secret.  Employers can also enter into an agreement with employees that limits the employee’s right to take confidential information when they leave, either voluntarily or as the result of being terminated.  Similarly, employees can be restricted with respect to hiring away employees and soliciting customers.  Having properly drafted employment agreements that contain confidentiality and various non-compete clauses is essential for many businesses.

The moral of the story is this: be prudent. Take steps to both identify the valuable business information you possess, and then take reasonable precautions to keep that information secret.  Once the secret is out you lose any and all rights, so treat that information accordingly.  Trade secrets are fragile and irreplaceable.

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Posted in: Business, Educational Information for Inventors, Gene Quinn, Inventors Information, IP News, IPWatchdog.com Articles, Trade Secrets


About the Author

is a US Patent Attorney, law professor and the founder of IPWatchdog.com. He is also a principal lecturer in the top patent bar review course in the nation, which helps aspiring patent attorneys and patent agents prepare themselves to pass the patent bar exam. Gene started the widely popular intellectual property website IPWatchdog.com in 1999, and since that time the site has had many millions of unique visitors. Gene has been quoted in the Wall Street Journal, the New York Times, the LA Times, USA Today, CNN Money, NPR and various other newspapers and magazines worldwide. He represents individuals, small businesses and start-up corporations. As an electrical engineer with a computer engineering focus his specialty is electronic and computer devices, Internet applications, software and business methods.

 

 


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3 comments
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  1. There are certain legal procedures you can take. Obviously as the last author noted, binding, industrial, trade secret contracts is one way. If you add a reasonable do not compete clause in the contract as well, no a disloyal employee can maybe take your idea/trade secret but never use it or bring it to market. With the proper non-compete clause he/or she isn’t even going to be working in the same business as you any more.

    Then when you go to court to get your equitable estaopple, you come with clean hands. Where as they’re the disloyal employee who stole your secret, then tried to compete against you in your own market. Obviously, copyright and try to patent what you can. You could write down a Trade Secret, call it a literary work of original artwork and get that copyrighted. There’d be some royalty collectting issue, since what they really took was a trade secret. However, a copyright on a trade secret, calling it a “Literary work of art” which you mean to publish. Now, in Court you have something solid, an actual chattel or right to sue over at least.

    There’s definitely a missing hole in the copyright and patents area. I’d try the copyright idea, or just make sure your do not compete contracts have do not give away trade secrets. I wrote this awhile back, maybe it can help you.

    Joel

    AGREEMENT NOT TO DISCLOSE

    I,___________________________________________________________________________, do hereby promise and swear that I am an employee in fact for, duly appointed agent for, am a legal representative for, am allowed to legally represent, have power of attorney for, that I am attorney in fact for, or that I am otherwise legally vested with the power to bind contractually
    ____________________________________________________________________________.

    By attaching my name above, my relationship to whom I represent, and by attaching my signature below I do hereby swear under the penalty of the commission of fraud in fact, and this document being used as evidence against me in any such legal action that I am who I claim to be and have the powers to contract I claim to hold. As a true employee, with the power to bind my employer or self to contract, I hereby do contract
    with:_________________________________________,of_____________________________, for the value received of any agent of the aforementioned company disclosing their proprietary ideas, trademarked secrets, or other business ideas to myself, I shall not copy or mimic any such proprietary ideas for my own profit. Furthermore, I will not disclose any such proprietary ideas to anyone else, in the same business or not. Should I disclose the proprietary ideas disclosed with me, than I do hereby bind my company and/or self in my legal capacity to do so to pay to

    ____________________________________________________________________________ the cost of $500,000. I furthermore agree that the cost of $500,000 is not a fee or fine. I agree that $500,000 is the cost of the proprietary information disclosed to myself, and should I mimic, recreate, share, communicate, or otherwise make personal use of the proprietary information disclosed myself, a completed sale of said proprietary information to myself has occurred for the cost of $500,000. I furthermore agree that this contract is not only my agreement not to disclose, but is also constitutes as my bill of sale and sales contract should I disclose the proprietary information divulged to myself by the aforementioned parties. By signing and dating the line below I do hereby bind myself and my employer to this contract, and do hereby swear I have the legal authority to do so:

    ________________________________________________________ Date_________________

  2. I kind of already left my comments above. I was just stating that theirs a hole in copyright and patents. What’s going to be big fun, is when big data slams into big law. Think about this, these companies collect so much information about you, sometimes even your likeness, they have ineffect created a digital character of you, which people would recognize as you. They highjack your identity, build a digital you through data minning, transfer this neverly formed character into a new media form (On-Line). They then broadcast it nation wide, and what’s worse is they actually go around selling this character of you (Using your real name and probably picture), and not a single dime is ever paid you in royalties. CA law states that every individual personally has the automatic exclusive rights to market and profit off of their name, likeness, and/or character (God I love Hollywood). However, because of the Actors wanting to protect their names, pictures, and privacy in the real world, we’ve been given a legal outline or blue print of how to go about tearing into these big data firms for compiling so much personal information, it reaches the point of them electronically fashioning a media depiction of you. Then they profit from it, without selling you the royalties.

    Obviously, I am still in the theoretical stages of such an argument. But the nuts and bolts, to hold that ship together and take her out to sea for battle are definitely there as far as the data miners v. common citizen consumers whom want their royalty fees united (Or something sympathetic sounding like that. I’d love to hear other peoples views and ideas on the subject?

    Joel

  3. Hi Joel,

    I just read your fascinating articles, better late than never.

    I am in the process of setting up some new business ventures, and are talking with acquaintances about possible joint business venture. Although not off the ground yet, still crawling. I am concerned about leaked information to a third party.

    I have a smart business mind but it is the attention to detail I think that is letting me down.

    I have no lock on my office door, but I do keep the filing cabinet locked. There is another person that has keys and access whom I believe is abusing this position. I have no evidence yet.

    Keep up the great work.

    And thanks for the heads up.

    Kind regards

    Jennifer E Taylor