Patent Filings Roundup: New NPE Solid-State Drive Suit Against Micron, Western Digital; Redfin Indemnitee Files IPR on Virtual Reality Tour Patents

By Jonathan Stroud
May 21, 2021

patent filings - https://depositphotos.com/3834376/stock-photo-lawsuit.htmlThe Patent Trial and Appeal Board (PTAB) had the usual 30 or so petitions this week (32, to be exact), with a fair number of procedural denials of concurrently filed petitions (i.e., the one-petition rule from the July 2019 updated Trial Practice Guide). District court patent filings sat at 71, with a significant number of Leigh Rothschild suits adding new defendants. A pretty standard week, it included the following:

You’re So Vervain: A newly minted Western-District of Texas non-practicing entity (NPE), Vervain, LLC, flush with what appears to be some ongoing litigation financing, has asserted four Solid-State Drive (SSD) Patents against longtime market leaders Micron and Western Digital.  Corporate records reveal the entity is run by Dallas-based Phillip John Jr., a former Marine and semiconductor salesman and apparent current professional patent assertor; the patents were acquired from either Greenthread, LLC, of which he is listed as the current President, or the inventor, G.R. Mohan Rao; Greenthread, in turn, asserted semiconductor patents from the same inventor, Rao, against Samsung in 2019, provoking IPRs that were dismissed prior to settlement.  Both Greenthread and Vervain seem to be backed in forms by “Patent Capital Funding 2018 – Series 1A,” a Delaware entity of uncertain origin.

Rao’s patents have been split up and oft-asserted by the likes of Intellectual Ventures, IPValuation Partners LLC, Endpoint IP, and an old Brian Yates entity, among others, and are a further examples of the rise of semiconductor/memory patents being bought by NPEs purely for assertion-grade licensing.

VR Realtor Patents Challenged: After Redfin was sued by Appliance Computing III months ago, I predicted they would end up challenging the patents; this week, their apparent indemnitee (discussed at length in the complaint) filed challenges on the patents asserted against Redfin, U.S. Patent 10/510,111, 9,836,855, and 10,102,673, all for VR tours of real spaces (hence the usefulness and use by Redfin.  The IPRs from this week are IPR2021-00937, IPR2021-00936, and IPR2021-00939.

Google IPRs strike out against Concert Technology Group: Google lost at institution on at least four inter partes reviews (IPRs) it had filed against Ikorongo Technology, LLC, a Concert Technology Group subsidiary, all on a failure to prove up prior art.

PTAB (32)

Case Number Action Owner Petitioner Patent
IPR2021-00935 Filed Commvault Systems Inc Cohesity Inc. 8762335
IPR2021-00927 Filed Linquet Technologies, Inc. Tile, Inc. 10163318
IPR2021-00930 Filed WSOU Investments, LLC [Craig Etchegoyen, WSOU Holdings, Inc.] Microsoft Corporation 7106702
IPR2021-00937 Filed Appliance Computing III, Inc. Matterport, Inc. [Poss. Redfin] 10510111
IPR2021-00936 Filed Appliance Computing III, Inc. Matterport, Inc. [Poss. Redfin] 9836885
IPR2021-00928 Filed Uniqure Biopharma BV Pfizer, Inc. 10465180
IPR2021-00926 Filed Uniqure Biopharma BV Pfizer, Inc. 9982248
IPR2021-00919 Filed Converter Manufacturing, LLC Tekni-Plex, Inc. 10562680
IPR2021-00908 Filed 3G Licensing S.A. [Fineur Int’l] Honeywell International, Inc.
TCT Mobile US Inc.
TCT Mobile US Holdings Inc.
TCL Communication Technology Holdings, Ltd.
TCT Mobile International Limited
et al.
7319718
IPR2021-00949 Filed Evolved Wireless LLC [Techquity Capital Management, LLC., Abha Divine] Samsung Electronics Co., Ltd. RE46679
IPR2021-00913 Filed Fortinet Inc Forescout Technologies, Inc. 9369299
PGR2021-00083 Filed E & E Co., Ltd. London Luxury LLC 10820376
IPR2021-00925 Filed Uniqure Biopharma BV Pfizer, Inc. 9982248
PGR2021-00082 Filed Jenam Tech, LLC [Oso IP, LLC] Google LLC 10742774
IPR2021-00916 Filed Converter Manufacturing, LLC Tekni-Plex, Inc. 9908281
IPR2021-00797 Filed Audioeye, Inc. Accessibe Ltd. 10444934
IPR2021-00939 Filed Appliance Computing III, Inc. Matterport, Inc. [Poss. Redfin] 10102673
IPR2021-00914 Filed Fortinet Inc Forescout Technologies, Inc. 8458314
IPR2021-00934 Filed Commvault Systems Inc Cohesity Inc. 7725671
IPR2021-00912 Filed Fortinet Inc Forescout Technologies, Inc. 9369299
IPR2021-00959 Filed Wsou Investments LLC [Craig Etchegoyen, WSOU Holdings, Inc.] Juniper Networks, Inc. 7382781
IPR2021-00917 Filed Gesture Technology Partners LLC Unified Patents, LLC 7933431
IPR2021-00915 Filed Fortinet Inc Forescout Technologies, Inc. 9948662
IPR2021-00943 Filed Evolved Wireless LLC [Techquity Capital Management, LLC., Abha Divine] Samsung Electronics Co., Ltd. 10517120
IPR2021-00918 Filed Converter Manufacturing, LLC Tekni-Plex, Inc. 10189624
IPR2021-00861 Filed Teradata US Inc Sap SE 9851923
PGR2021-00078 Filed Dynaenergetics Europe Gmbh G&H Diversified Manufacturing, LP 10844697
IPR2021-00888 Filed Nokia Microsoft Corp. 8165024
IPR2021-00887 Filed Nokia Microsoft Corp. 8165024
IPR2021-00950 Filed Evolved Wireless LLC [Techquity Capital Management, LLC., Abha Divine] Samsung Electronics Co., Ltd. RE48326
IPR2021-00938 Filed Appliance Computing III, Inc. Matterport, Inc. 10592973
IPR2021-00933 Filed Teladoc Health Inc
Jonata Sub Two Inc
American Well Corporation 7761185
IPR2021-00118 Not Instituted – Merits Thaddeus Gabara Facebook, Inc. 8706400
IPR2021-00127 Not Instituted – Merits Ikorongo Technology LLC
Ikorongo Texas LLC [Concert Technology Corp.]
Google LLC RE45543
IPR2021-00116 Not Instituted – Merits Thaddeus Gabara Facebook, Inc. 8930131
IPR2021-00164 Not Instituted – Merits Singular Computing LLC Google LLC 9218156
IPR2021-00058 Not Instituted – Merits Ikorongo Technology LLC
Ikorongo Texas LLC [Concert Technology Corp.]
Google LLC RE47704
IPR2021-00084 Not Instituted – Merits Ikorongo Texas LLC
Ikorongo Technology LLC [Concert Technology Corp.]
Google LLC RE41450
IPR2021-00202 Not Instituted – Merits Kimberly-Clark Global Sales, LLC Extrusion Group, LLC
Extrusion Group Services, LLC
EG Global LLC
EG Ventures, LLC
Antecip Bioventures II LLC
6972104
IPR2021-00117 Not Instituted – Merits Thaddeus Gabara Facebook, Inc. 9299348
IPR2021-00003 Not Instituted – Merits Nxp B.V. [NXP Semiconductors] Impinj, Inc. 7538444
IPR2020-01707 Not Instituted – Merits Ficep Corp. Peddinghaus Corp. 7974719
IPR2021-00132 Not Instituted – Merits Bio-Rad Laboratories, Inc. 10X Genomics, Inc. 10190115
IPR2021-00154 Not Instituted – Merits Singular Computing LLC Google LLC 10416961
IPR2021-00076 Not Instituted – Merits Vineyard Investigations E. & J. Gallo Winery 8528834
PGR2021-00009 Not Instituted – Procedural Gree, Inc. Supercell OY 10549187
IPR2021-00073 Not Instituted – Procedural Visroboro LLC
Cognipower, LLC
Fantasia Trading LLC D/B/A AnkerDirect RE47713
IPR2021-00068 Not Instituted – Procedural Visroboro LLC
Cognipower, LLC
Fantasia Trading LLC D/B/A AnkerDirect RE47031
IPR2020-01723 Not Instituted – Procedural Masimo Corporation Apple, Inc 10470695
IPR2021-00072 Not Instituted – Procedural Visroboro LLC
Cognipower, LLC
Fantasia Trading LLC D/B/A AnkerDirect RE47713
IPR2021-00106 Not Instituted – Procedural Demaray LLC Applied Materials, Inc. 7381657
IPR2021-00105 Not Instituted – Procedural Demaray LLC Applied Materials, Inc. 7544276
IPR2021-00309 Not Instituted – Procedural The Noco Company Guangdong Boltpower Energy Co. Ltd. 9007015
IPR2021-00062 Instituted Virtek Vision International ULC Assembly Guidance Systems, Inc. 10052734
IPR2020-01722 Instituted Masimo Corporation Apple, Inc 10470695
PGR2021-00006 Instituted Concert Pharmaceuticals, Inc. Incyte Corporation 10561659
IPR2021-00054 Instituted Ecofactor, Inc
Ecofactor, Inc.
Google LLC 10534382
IPR2020-01643 Instituted Align Technology, Inc. 3Shape A/S
3Shape, Inc.
10507088
IPR2021-00071 Instituted Visroboro LLC
Cognipower, LLC
Fantasia Trading LLC D/B/A AnkerDirect RE47713
IPR2021-00219 Instituted Sito Mobile R&D IP, LLC
Sito Mobile, Ltd
Hulu, LLC 9135635
IPR2020-01642 Instituted Align Technology, Inc. 3Shape A/S
3Shape, Inc.
10507088
IPR2020-01644 Instituted Align Technology, Inc. 3Shape A/S
3Shape, Inc.
10507089
IPR2021-00147 Instituted Bell Semiconductor, LLC Microchip Technology, Inc.
Microsemi Corporation
8288269
IPR2021-00165 Instituted Singular Computing LLC Google LLC 9218156
IPR2021-00206 Instituted Sito Mobile R&D IP, LLC
Sito Mobile, Ltd
Hulu, LLC 9135636
IPR2021-00181 Instituted Omega Patents, LLC BMW of North America, LLC 9458814
IPR2021-00103 Instituted Demaray LLC Applied Materials, Inc. 7544276
IPR2021-00155 Instituted Singular Computing LLC Google LLC 10416961
IPR2020-01737 Instituted Masimo Corporation Apple, Inc 10709366
IPR2021-00067 Instituted Visroboro LLC
Cognipower, LLC
Fantasia Trading LLC D/B/A AnkerDirect RE47031
IPR2021-00104 Instituted Demaray LLC Applied Materials, Inc. 7381657
IPR2020-01622 Instituted Align Technology, Inc. 3Shape A/S
3Shape, Inc.
9675430
IPR2021-00179 Instituted Singular Computing LLC Google LLC 8407273
IPR2021-00108 Instituted Advance Cluster Systems, Inc. NVIDIA Corporation 8676877
IPR2020-01645 Instituted Align Technology, Inc. 3Shape A/S
3Shape, Inc.
10507089
IPR2020-01029 Adverse Judgment Hammond Development International, Inc. Amazon.com, Inc 10264032
IPR2020-00179 Final Written Decision Immervision, Inc. LG Electronics, Inc. 6844990
IPR2019-01621 Final Written Decision Universal Electronics, Inc. Roku, Inc. 7821504
IPR2019-01620 Final Written Decision Universal Electronics, Inc. Roku, Inc. 7821505
IPR2020-00168 Final Written Decision Randall Batinkoff Church & Dwight Co., Inc. 7841494
IPR2020-00147 Final Written Decision Sucxess LLC [Axel Nix] Dataspeed Inc. 10027505
IPR2020-00195 Final Written Decision Immervision, Inc. LG Electronics, Inc. 6844990
IPR2020-00145 Final Written Decision XMTT, Inc. Intel Corporation 7707388
IPR2020-00447 Final Written Decision Uniloc 2017 LLC [Fortress, Softbank, Craig Etchegoyen] Google LLC 6329934
IPR2020-00317 Final Written Decision Cellwitch Inc. Tile, Inc. 8872655

District Court (71)

Case Number Action Plaintiff Defendant Patent
1:21-cv-00676 Filed Cedar Lane Technologies Inc. [Poss. Intellectual Venutres] Spotify USA 6526411
6721489
7610394
6:21-cv-00487 Filed Vervain, LLC [Phillip John Jr., Greenthread, LLC] Micron Technology, Inc. 8891298
9997240
9196385
8:21-cv-00881 Filed MicroPairing Technologies LLC [Validity LLC, Northwater Intellectual Property Fund L.P. 2, a Northwater Capital Management] Hyundai Motor America, Inc. 7793136
8583292
9697015
7178049
8953816
6778073
2:21-cv-00161 Filed Blitzsafe Texas, LLC [Ira Marlowe, Blitz Safe of America, LLC] Continental Automotive GmbH
Continental AG
7489786
8155342
1:21-cv-00695 Filed Teva Pharmaceuticals International GmbH
Eagle Pharmaceuticals, Inc
Cephalon, Inc.
Dr. Reddy’s Laboratories 8609707
9265831
9144568
9572887
9597397
9000021
9572796
9034908
10052385
10010533
9597398
9572797
9579384
9597399
2:21-cv-11198 Filed MELINTA THERAPEUTICS, LLC
REMPEX PHARMACEUTICALS, INC
MELINTA SUBSIDIARY CORP
Nexus Pharmaceuticals, Inc. 9278105
9084802
7:21-cv-04303 Filed Digital Verification Systems, LLC [Leigh Rothschild] Bizodo, Inc. d/b/a SeamlessDocs 9054860
7:21-cv-04306 Filed Rothschild Broadcast Distribution Systems, LLC [Leigh Rothschild] Showtime Networks Inc. 8856221
2:21-cv-00169 Filed Sullstar Technologies, Inc.
Platinum Tools, LLC
Joseph Christopher Lanier aka Joseph C. Lanier
Lanier Representation Group, Inc. aka LRG aka LRG, Inc.
Gary Wermuth
Mark S. Fukuda
Old Wei, Inc. fka Wave Electronics, Inc.
10116082
9543729
10573990
4:21-cv-00376 Filed Pictos Technologies Inc [Imperium Holdings, LLC]. Samsung Group 6838651
7800145
7323671
2:21-cv-11261 Filed Celgene Biocon Pharma, Inc.
Biocon Pharma Limited
Biocon Limited
7189740
9101622
8404717
7855217
7968569
7465800
8530498
9101621
9056120
8648095
1:21-cv-21835 Filed SOTAT, LLC Night Owl SP 10511809
9854207
2:21-cv-11088 Filed ZIV HARISH EHUD ARBIT
ISAAC RUBINSTEIN
8:21-cv-01141 Filed MonkeyLectric, LLC Theta Administration, LLC dba Activ Life 9174691
1:21-cv-00412 Filed Symbology Innovations, LLC [Leigh Rothschild] Michaels Cos. 8424752
6:21-cv-00490 Filed Trenchant Blade Technologies LLC [Longhorn IP] Intel Corp. 7056821
6720619
7498642
7511332
1:21-cv-10778 Filed Riggs Technology Holdings, LLC [Ortiz & Lopez] Cengage Learning, Inc. 7299067
2:21-cv-00265 Filed Alvotech hf
Alvotech USA Inc.
AbbVie, Inc. 9085619
8420081
8961973
8926975
1:21-cv-10785 Filed Digital Verification Systems, LLC [Leigh Rothschild] Notarize, Inc. 9054860
6:21-cv-00496 Filed Decapolis Systems, LLC Cerner Corp. 7490048
7464040
6:21-cv-00497 Filed Transcend Shipping Systems, LLC [Raymond Anthony Joao] J.B. Hunt Transport Services, Inc. 10181109
7253731
10796268
7482920
9847029
2:21-cv-00168 Filed MCOM IP, LLC UNICOM SYSTEMS, INC. 8862508
3:21-cv-03649 Filed Netflix Avago Technologies International Sales Pte. Limited
CA, Inc.
8656419
7103794
9402098
10911938
8646014
1:21-cv-00698 Filed Nicor, Inc. SourceBlue, LLC fka Turner Logistics, LLC 10824427
1:21-cv-00430 Filed Bandspeed, LLC Broadcom Integrated Circuit (Shanghai) Co. dba Beken Corporation 7477624
9379769
7903608
10999856
8873500
7570614
10602528
7027418
10791565
9883520
8542643
10887893
6:21-cv-00500 Filed MCOM IP, LLC Wells Fargo 8862508
6:21-cv-00502 Filed Decapolis Systems, LLC Eclinical Works. 7464040
7490048
6:21-cv-00483 Filed Kortek Industries Pty Ltd. Edison Labs, Inc. (d/b/a Orro) 9590427
9923376
10429869
9465377
1:21-cv-02516 Filed Lianghao Chunyu The Partnerships and Unincorporated Associations Identified on Schedule “A” D906013
1:21-mc-00406 Filed Terminal Reality, Inc.
Infernal Technology, LLC
Epic Games, Inc.
6:21-cv-00488 Filed Vervain, LLC [Phillip John Jr., Greenthread, LLC] HGST, Inc.
Western Digital
8891298
9997240
9196385
6:21-cv-00489 Filed Decapolis Systems, LLC [Raymond Anthony Joao] Allscripts Healthcare, LLC 7490048
7464040
2:21-cv-00622 Filed Geographic Location Innovations, LLC [Leigh Rothschild] Mattress Depot 7917285
1:21-cv-00413 Filed Symbology Innovations, LLC [Leigh Rothschild] Walgreen Co. 8424752
5:21-cv-00466 Filed Symbology Innovations, LLC [Leigh Rothschild] Cole Haan, LLC 8424752
1:21-cv-00589 Filed Alvotech hf
Alvotech USA Inc.
AbbVie, Inc. 9085619
8420081
8961973
8926975
8:21-cv-00882 Filed MicroPairing Technologies LLC [Validity LLC, Northwater Intellectual Property Fund L.P. 2, a Northwater Capital Management] Kia America, Inc. 7793136
8583292
9697015
7178049
8953816
6778073
2:21-cv-00160 Filed Blitzsafe Texas, LLC [Ira Marlowe, Blitz Safe of America, LLC] Aptiv PLC 7489786
8155342
2:21-cv-00162 Filed Blitzsafe Texas, LLC [Ira Marlowe, Blitz Safe of America, LLC] EinCar Tech. Ltd. 7489786
8155342
7:21-cv-04250 Filed Rothschild Broadcast Distribution Systems, LLC [Leigh Rothschild] SCHOOLOGY, INC. 8856221
6:21-cv-00492 Filed Scanning Technologies Innovations, LLC [Leigh Rothschild] EZ WEB ENTERPRISES, INC. 10600101
2:21-cv-04034 Filed MicroPairing Technologies LLC [Validity LLC, Northwater Intellectual Property Fund L.P. 2, a Northwater Capital Management] American Honda Motor Co., Inc. 7793136
8583292
9697015
7178049
8953816
6778073
1:21-cv-02636 Filed MELINTA THERAPEUTICS, LLC
REMPEX PHARMACEUTICALS, INC
MELINTA SUBSIDIARY CORP
Nexus Pharmaceuticals, Inc. 9278105
9084802
3:21-cv-05363 Filed Inventist, Inc. eWheels LLC 8807250
6:21-cv-00484 Filed Kortek Industries Pty Ltd. Emerson Electric Co. 9590427
9923376
10429869
9465377
2:21-cv-00159 Filed Opticurrent [Longhorn Asset Group] Bitfenix Co. Ltd. 6958623
4:21-cv-04085 Filed Sig Sauer Inc. Springfield, Inc. d/b/a Springfield Armory 10480880
10962315
9:21-cv-80852 Filed Landmark Technology A, LLC [Laurence B. Lockwood] Life`s Abundance, Inc. 7010508
2:21-cv-00163 Filed Blitzsafe Texas, LLC [Ira Marlowe, Blitz Safe of America, LLC] JVC Kenwood Corp. 7489786
8155342
2:21-cv-00164 Filed Blitzsafe Texas, LLC [Ira Marlowe, Blitz Safe of America, LLC] Marelli Europe S.p.A. 7489786
8155342
2:21-cv-00167 Filed Blitzsafe Texas, LLC [Ira Marlowe, Blitz Safe of America, LLC] AB Volvo 7489786
8155342
1:21-cv-02578 Filed Chrome Cherry Limited The Partnerships and Unincorporated Associations Identified on Schedule “A” D858876
1:21-cv-04241 Filed Trustees Of Dartmouth College
ChromaDex, Inc.
Thorne Research, Inc. 8197807
8383086
1:21-cv-02674 Filed Godinger Silver Art Co., Ltd. Shenzen Tangson Houseware Co., Ltd. D/B/A Amazon STOREFRONT HOME-SIGNATURE D846947
1:21-cv-00691 Filed Jazz Pharmaceuticals, Inc. Avadel CNS Pharmaceuticals, LLC
Avadel Specialty Pharmaceuticals, LLC
Avadel Management Corporation
Avadel Pharmaceuticals PLC
Avadel US Holdings, Inc.
et al.
10959956
10813885
8731963
10966931
10758488
1:21-cv-00692 Filed Victory Innovations Company, Inc. One World Technologies, Inc. dba Techtronic Industries Power Equipment
Techtronic Industries
10994291
7:21-cv-04322 Filed Rothschild Broadcast Distribution Systems, LLC [Leigh Rothschild] Verizon Communication, Inc. d/b/a Fios TV 8856221
1:21-cv-00607 Filed Medytox Inc. Daewoong Pharmaceutical, Co. Ltd.
Daewoong Co., Ltd.
2:21-cv-03984 Filed B and D Dental Corp. Aidite USA Technology Co. LTD.
Does
10426583
10238473
10463457
8936848
10799328
10034728
10799327
9649179
8:21-cv-00885 Filed MicroPairing Technologies LLC [Validity LLC, Northwater Intellectual Property Fund L.P. 2, a Northwater Capital Management] Mazda Motor Corp. 7793136
8583292
9697015
7178049
8953816
6778073
2:21-cv-00165 Filed Blitzsafe Texas, LLC [Ira Marlowe, Blitz Safe of America, LLC] Namsung Corporation 7489786
8155342
2:21-cv-00166 Filed Blitzsafe Texas, LLC [Ira Marlowe, Blitz Safe of America, LLC] Sony Corp. 7489786
8155342
1:21-cv-02574 Filed Chrome Cherry Limited The Partnerships and Unincorporated Associations Identified on Schedule “A” D858876
4:21-cv-01557 Filed Social Positioning Input Systems, LLC [Leigh Rothschild] Mobisoft Infotech 9261365
3:21-cv-03603 Filed MINDBASEHQ LLC Google LLC
Alphabet Inc.
6665680
6510433
1:21-cv-02600 Filed Lg Electronics Alabama, Inc
LG Corp.
Partnerships and Unincorporated Associations Identified in Schedule A
6:21-cv-00495 Filed Apple Koss Corp. 10491982
10469934
10206025
10506325
10298451
1:21-cv-11258 Filed Norgine B.V.
Salix Pharmaceuticals
BAUSCH HEALTH IRELAND LIMITED
Lupin Limited 10918723
0:21-cv-61020 Filed Chengdu Jiechen Technology LTD Garten-Box
Yarkor-Direct
Party Boom
Allinko-Direct
Trobing-US
et al.
D903376
6:21-cv-00499 Filed MCOM IP, LLC Infosys, Inc. 8862508
6:21-cv-00501 Filed Asetek Holdings, Inc. SHENZHEN APALTEK CO., LTD. aka SHENZHEN ANG PAI TECHNOLOGY CO., LTD.
GUANGDONG APALTEK LIQUID COOLING TECHNOLOGY CO., LTD. aka GUANGDONG ANG PAI LIQUID COOLING TECHNOLOGY CO., LTD. aka DONGGUAN APALCOOL
10078355
8245764
10599196
8240362

Image Source: Deposit Photos
Image ID:3834376
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The Author

Jonathan Stroud

Jonathan Stroud is Chief IP Counsel at Unified Patents, LLC, where he manages a growing team of talented, diverse attorneys and oversees a docket of administrative challenges, appeals, licensing, and district court work in addition to IP, administrative, amicus, policy, marketing, and corporate matters.

Prior to Unified he was a patent litigator for Finnegan, Henderson, Farabow, Garrett & Dunner LLP, and a former medical devices patent examiner at the USPTO. He earned his J.D. with honors from the American University Washington College of Law; his B.S. in Biomedical Engineering from Tulane University; and his M.A. in Print Journalism from the University of Southern California. He enjoys teaching, writing, and speaking on patent and administrative law.

Warning & Disclaimer: The pages, articles and comments on IPWatchdog.com do not constitute legal advice, nor do they create any attorney-client relationship. The articles published express the personal opinion and views of the author as of the time of publication and should not be attributed to the author’s employer, clients or the sponsors of IPWatchdog.com. Read more.

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