Patent Filings Roundup: Fintiv Files Against Paypal; PPC Broadband Patents Challenged Based on Successful Reexams; Last CBM Decision Issues

https://depositphotos.com/159708306/stock-photo-legal-battleand-lawsuit.htmlIt was a rather light week at the Patent Trial and Appeal Board (PTAB) with just 17 new petitions (the lowest in recent memory), with district court patent filings at 69—a few more than usual—and 60 more terminations. Samsung lost a series of five chip inter partes reviews (IPRs) at institution against an LED Wafer Solutions LLC (apparently associated with Oso IP) on the merits (they and Seoul Semiconductor were the only two plaintiffs yet sued); PPC Broadband got some IPRs from Amphenol based in large part on family members having been cancelled earlier in reexam on the same grounds; Raymond Anthony Joao entity Beteiro LLC filed a few further cases; Caselas, another of his entities, has now sued upwards of 40 banks on five patents of similar progeny; and there were lots of file-and-settle terminations in the district court, per usual. And what I believe is the final covered business method review (CBM) to be filed and pending has concluded with the claims being cancelled. The claims there were directed to currency trading systems.

New Lawsuit Brought by Fintiv, Inc.; No Trial Yet in Original Case: Fintiv Inc., the company who originally benefitted from the USPTO’s new discretionary powers in the now-famous precedential decision, has moved on from just suing Apple—in a trial that has been delayed and transferred well beyond when the original challenges would have been complete, and just in March reached claim construction before Judge Albright—has now moved on to sue PayPal. The suit is based on five patents. The earlier suit against Apple had been filed in the Northern District of Texas but transferred to the Western District in Waco before Judge Albright, who just issued the claim construction order there after almost three years of delay. At this point, the original Apple v. Fintiv IPRs would have been decided and likely the appeal would have concluded well in advance of the yet-to-materialize trial.

PPC Broadband Gets Challenges Based on Successful Reexams of Family Members: Some may recall the PPC Broadband/Corning Optical cable fight from a few years ago (disclosure: I was involved tangentially in some of these matters in private practice). It included litigation and a surprising number of reexams and challenges related to a very large portfolio on physical cable connectors. Competitor Amphenol has now filed IPRs on patents based in part on successful reexam challenges to earlier patents in the family.

PTAB

Case Number Action Owner Petitioner Patent
IPR2022-00720 Filed PPC Broadband Inc [Belden Inc.] Amphenol Corp 10038284
IPR2022-00701 Filed VideoLabs, Inc. [VL Collective IP, LLC] Dell Technologies Inc
Dell Inc
7970059
IPR2022-00707 Filed Sightline Payments LLC Everi Payments Inc. 9785926
IPR2022-00721 Filed PPC Broadband Inc [Belden Inc.] Amphenol Corp 9225083
IPR2022-00684 Filed Microsurgical Technology, Inc. [Halma PLC] New World Medical, Inc. 10888460
IPR2022-00714 Filed Vivint Inc [Vivint Smart Home, Inc.] Alarm.com Inc.
ADT Inc
7956739
IPR2022-00728 Filed Vivint Inc [Vivint Smart Home, Inc.] Alarm.com Incorporated 9349262
IPR2022-00696 Filed Sightline Payments LLC Everi Payments Inc. 8998708
IPR2022-00687 Filed Bright Data Ltd. Metacluster LT UAB 11190622
IPR2022-00706 Filed Sightline Payments LLC Everi Payments, Inc 9466176
IPR2022-00719 Filed PPC Broadband Inc [Belden Inc.] Amphenol Corp 10446983
IPR2022-00727 Filed Dr. Wesley Boudville ENSEO, LLC 8532632
IPR2022-00718 Filed PPC Broadband Inc [Belden Inc.] Amphenol Corp 10965063
IPR2022-00729 Filed Dr. Wesley Boudville ENSEO, LLC 9294542
IPR2022-00712 Filed Ventria Bioscience, Inc Wuhan Healthgen Biotechnology Group 10618951
IPR2022-00688 Filed Future Link Systems, Inc. [Vector Capital Corporation] Realtek Semiconductor Corporation 7917680
IPR2022-00649 Filed Jawbone Innovations, LLC [Fortress IP] Google LLC 8019091
IPR2021-01506 Not Instituted – Merits Led Wafer Solutions LLC Samsung Electronics America, Inc.
Samsung Electronics Co., Ltd.
8941137
IPR2021-01418 Not Instituted – Merits DivX, LLC [SoftBank Group Corp., Fortress IP] Hulu, LLC 10257443
IPR2021-01530 Not Instituted – Merits Blaze Mobile, Inc.
Michelle Fisher
Samsung Electronics America, Inc.
Samsung Electronics Co., Ltd.
10825007
IPR2021-01501 Not Instituted – Merits Blaze Mobile, Inc.
Michelle Fisher
Samsung Electronics America, Inc.
Samsung Electronics Co., Ltd.
10621612
IPR2021-01486 Not Instituted – Merits Neo Wireless LLC [SoftBank Group Corp., Softbank] Dell, Inc.
Dell Technologies Inc.
10447450
IPR2021-01491 Not Instituted – Merits Led Wafer Solutions LLC Samsung Electronics America, Inc.
Samsung Electronics Co., Ltd.
8952405
IPR2021-01504 Not Instituted – Merits Led Wafer Solutions LLC Seoul Semiconductor Co., Ltd. 9502612
IPR2021-01468 Not Instituted – Merits Neo Wireless LLC [SoftBank Group Corp., Fortress IP] Dell, Inc.
Dell Technologies Inc.
10075941
IPR2021-01516 Not Instituted – Merits Led Wafer Solutions LLC Seoul Semiconductor Co., Ltd. 8941137
IPR2021-01529 Not Instituted – Merits Blaze Mobile, Inc.
Michelle Fisher
Samsung Electronics America, Inc.
Samsung Electronics Co., Ltd.
10699259
IPR2021-01419 Not Instituted – Merits DivX, LLC [SoftBank Group Corp.] Hulu, LLC 10257443
IPR2021-01479 Not Instituted – Merits Led Wafer Solutions LLC Seoul Semiconductor Co., Ltd. 8952405
IPR2021-01500 Not Instituted – Merits Blaze Mobile, Inc.
Michelle Fisher
Samsung Electronics America, Inc.
Samsung Electronics Co., Ltd.
10339556
IPR2021-01480 Not Instituted – Merits Neo Wireless LLC [SoftBank Group Corp.] Dell, Inc.
Dell Technologies Inc.
8467366
PGR2021-00111 Not Instituted – Merits Flexiworld Technologies, Inc. [Quarterhill] Roku, Inc. 10846031
IPR2021-01499 Not Instituted – Merits Blaze Mobile, Inc.
Michelle Fisher
Samsung Electronics America, Inc.
Samsung Electronics Co., Ltd.
9996849
IPR2021-01578 Not Instituted – Procedural Ecofactor, Inc. [Trane Technologies] Google LLC 8886488
IPR2021-01502 Not Instituted – Procedural Bright Data Ltd. CODE200, UAB
TESO LT, UAB
Metacluster LT UAB
Oxysales UAB
CORETECH LT, UAB
9241044
IPR2021-01503 Not Instituted – Procedural Bright Data Ltd. CODE200, UAB
TESO LT, UAB
Metacluster LT UAB
Oxysales UAB
CORETECH LT, UAB
9742866
IPR2021-01428 Instituted SecurityProfiling Inc Cisco Systems, Inc. 10609063
IPR2022-00093 Instituted Gesture Technology Partners, LLC LG Electronics, Inc.
LG Electronics USA, Inc
8194924
IPR2021-01430 Instituted Palo Alto Research Center Inc. [Xerox Corporation] Twitter, Inc. 9208439
IPR2022-00091 Instituted Gesture Technology Partners, LLC LG Electronics USA, Inc
LG Electronics, Inc.
7933431
IPR2021-01157 Instituted Centripetal Networks Inc. Palo Alto Networks, Inc. 10749906
IPR2021-01553 Instituted Traxcell Technologies, LLC Apple, Inc 9549388
IPR2021-01476 Instituted DivX, LLC [SoftBank Group Corp., Fortress IP] Unified Patents, LLC 10326987
IPR2021-01538 Instituted U.S. Well Services, LLC Halliburton Energy Services, Inc. 10408031
IPR2021-01498 Instituted Rotolight Limited [Rotolight Group Ltd.] Arnold & Richter Cine Technik GmbH & Co. Betriebs KG 10203101
IPR2021-01398 Instituted Palo Alto Research Center Inc. [Xerox Corporation] Twitter, Inc. 7043475
IPR2021-01593 Instituted Optical Licensing, LLC [IP Edge] STMicroelectronics, Inc. 6791898
IPR2021-00923 Instituted Gesture Technology Partners, LLC Apple, Inc
LG Electronics, Inc.
LG Electronics USA, Inc
8194924
IPR2021-01413 Instituted Memoryweb, LLC Unified Patents, LLC 10621228
IPR2021-01537 Instituted Shell Oil Company [Royal Dutch Shell plc] Scientific Design Company, Inc. 8084390
IPR2021-01446 Instituted Safe Driving Technologies LLC Ford Motor Company 9047170
PGR2021-00109 Instituted Columbia Insurance Co. [Berkshire Hathaway inc.] Simpson Strong-Tie Company Inc. 11021867
IPR2021-01346 Instituted Lynk Labs, Inc Samsung Electronics America, Inc. 10499466
IPR2021-01347 Instituted Lynk Labs, Inc Samsung Electronics America, Inc.
Samsung Electronics Co., Ltd.
10966298
IPR2021-01453 Instituted OsteoMed LLC Stryker Corporation
Wright Medical Technology, Inc.
10245085
IPR2021-01457 Instituted Express Mobile, Inc. Facebook, Inc. 9928044
IPR2021-00920 Instituted Gesture Technology Partners, LLC Apple, Inc
LG Electronics, Inc.
LG Electronics USA, Inc
7933431
IPR2021-01165 Instituted Massachusetts Institute of Technology
WiTricity Corporation
Momentum Dynamics Corporation 7741734
IPR2021-01527 Instituted Aortic Innovations, LLC Edwards LifeSciences LLC
Edwards LifeSciences Corporation
10792172
IPR2021-01497 Instituted Rotolight Limited [Rotolight Group Ltd.] Arnold & Richter Cine Technik GmbH & Co. Betriebs KG 10197258
IPR2021-01496 Instituted Rotolight Limited [Rotolight Group Ltd.] Arnold & Richter Cine Technik GmbH & Co. Betriebs KG 10197257
IPR2021-01466 Instituted RapidPulse, Inc Penumbra, Inc. 10531883
IPR2021-01300 Instituted Lynk Labs, Inc Samsung Electronics America, Inc.
Samsung Electronics Co., Ltd.
11019697
IPR2021-01517 Instituted EMA Electromechanics, Inc. Siemens Industry, Inc. 7724489
IPR2021-01531 Instituted Arigna Technology Ltd [Atlantic IP Services Limited, Magnetar Capital] Volkswagen Group of America, Inc. 8289082
IPR2021-01452 Instituted OsteoMed LLC Stryker Corporation
Wright Medical Technology, Inc.
9763716
IPR2022-00090 Instituted Gesture Technology Partners, LLC LG Electronics USA, Inc
LG Electronics, Inc.
8553079
IPR2021-01345 Instituted Lynk Labs, Inc Samsung Electronics America, Inc.
Samsung Electronics Co., Ltd.
10492252
IPR2021-00922 Instituted Gesture Technology Partners, LLC Apple, Inc
LG Electronics, Inc.
LG Electronics USA, Inc
8553079
IPR2021-01158 Instituted Centripetal Networks Inc. Palo Alto Networks, Inc. 10503899
IPR2021-01299 Instituted Lynk Labs, Inc Samsung Electronics America, Inc.
Samsung Electronics Co., Ltd.
10506674
PGR2020-00084 Final Written Decision Blackhawk Network Inc. [Albertsons Cos., Inc.] Interactive Communications International, Inc., 10769894
CBM2020-00023 Final Written Decision Oanda Corporation Gain Capital Holdings, Inc., 7496534
IPR2020-01563 Final Written Decision Nevro Corporation Boston Scientific Corporation
Boston Scientific Neuromodulation Corporation
10076665
IPR2020-01205 Final Written Decision Acorn Semi, LLC [Acorn Technologies, Inc.] Samsung Electronics America, Inc.
Samsung Electronics Co., Ltd.
9461167
IPR2020-01562 Final Written Decision Nevro Corporation Boston Scientific Corporation
Boston Scientific Neuromodulation Corporation
9002460
PGR2021-00117 Procedural Termination Regeneron Pharmaceuticals, Inc. Celltrion, Inc. 10857231
                                                    

                       District Court (69)

Case Number Action Plaintiff Defendant Patent
1:22-cv-00021 Filed James Chadwick Meyers
JM4 Tactical LLC
Damon Albus Doing Business As 5d D788451
D841979
D836329
D811731
1:22-cv-00112 Filed Aspiration Innovation Inc. Ford Motor 8489563
1:22-cv-00326 Filed Cedar Lane Technologies Inc. [Intellectual Ventures] Voxx Electronics Corp 6972790
8537242
6:22-cv-00281 Filed Cyboenergy Inc. Aptos Solar Technology LLC 8786133
9331489
6:22-cv-00284 Filed Desktopsites Inc. Vmware Inc 8732182
8306961
7912822
2:22-cv-01712 Filed Stratosaudio Inc. Autonation Inc
Hyundai Motor America Inc
8200203
9584843
9294806
8903307
8688028
9355405
8166081
3:22-cv-00015 Filed Nuhn Industries Ltd Bazooka Farmstar LLC
6:22-cv-00288 Filed Fintiv Inc. Paypal Holdings Inc 9892386
11120413
9208488
10438196
8538845
1:22-cv-00346 Filed Bristol-myers Squibb
Er Squibb Sons LLC [Bristol-myers Squibb Company]
Astrazeneca Uk Ltd
Astrazeneca
10308714
10138299
10266594
8779108
10323092
10266596
9580507
9580505
10266595
10232040
4:22-cv-00214 Filed Aml Ip LLC [Dynamic IP Deals] Amys Hallmark
Hallmark Cards Inc
Hallmark Licensing LLC
6876979
4:22-cv-00215 Filed Aml Ip LLC [Dynamic IP Deals] Atwood Distributing Lp
Atwoods Ranch Home
6876979
4:22-cv-01737 Filed Rn Nehushtan Trust Ltd Apple Inc. 9642002
9635544
6:22-cv-00291 Filed Datrec LLC [Dynamic IP Deals] Ge Healthcare Ltd 8381309
6:22-cv-00298 Filed Caselas LLC [Raymond Anthony Joao] Randolph Brooks Federal Credit Union 5010485A
5903830A
6047270A
5920847A
6128602A
5691524A
9117230
7529698
4774664A
5892900A
9117206
5783808A
9715691
8857710
5826241A
5532464A
10504122
5237159A
6115690A
7661585
8600855
5878337A
5715314A
2:22-cv-00083 Filed Soundstreak Texas LLC [Quest Patent Research Corporation] Delair Sas 10726822
2:22-cv-00085 Filed Soundstreak Texas LLC [Quest Patent Research Corporation] Ehang Holdings Limited 10726822
1:22-cv-00643 Filed Ivanti Inc [Appsense Incoporated] Patch My Pc LLC 8407687
7823147
6990660
6:22-cv-00285 Filed Cutting Edge Vision LLC Tcl Electronics Holdings Limited
Tcl Communication Limited
Tcl Technology Group Corporation
Tcl Multimedia Technology Holdings Ltd
10063761
11153472
6:22-cv-00286 Filed Compass Directional Guidance Inc Gordon Technologies LLC 8640795
1:22-cv-00351 Filed Bardy Diagnostics Inc [Hill-Rom Holdings Inc.] Vital Connect Inc 11051743
6:22-cv-00293 Filed Caselas LLC [Raymond Anthony Joao] Capital One Financial Corp 5010485A
5903830A
6047270A
5920847A
6128602A
5691524A
9117230
7529698
4774664A
5892900A
9117206
5783808A
9715691
8857710
5826241A
5532464A
10504122
5237159A
6115690A
7661585
8600855
5878337A
5715314A
6:22-cv-00295 Filed Caselas LLC [Raymond Anthony Joao] Wells Fargo 5010485A
5903830A
6047270A
5920847A
6128602A
5691524A
9117230
7529698
4774664A
5892900A
9117206
5783808A
9715691
8857710
5826241A
5532464A
10504122
5237159A
6115690A
7661585
8600855
5878337A
5715314A
6:22-cv-00297 Filed Caselas LLC [Raymond Anthony Joao] Frost Bank 5010485A
5903830A
6047270A
5920847A
6128602A
5691524A
9117230
7529698
4774664A
5892900A
9117206
5783808A
9715691
8857710
5826241A
5532464A
10504122
5237159A
6115690A
7661585
8600855
5878337A
5715314A
2:22-cv-01692 Filed Zhejiang Yuanzheng Auto Motorcycle Accessories Co Ltd Arex Industries Inc D909634
3:22-cv-01364 Filed Aerie Pharmaceuticals Inc
Aerie Distribution Inc [Aerie Pharmaceuticals Inc]
Orbicular Pharmaceutical Technologies 9993470
9931336
11197853
10588901
11185538
9415043
6:22-cv-00094 Filed Frank L Carter Winn Supply
Walmart Super Stores
Ez Flo International Also Known As Eastman
Tractor Supply Store
Hajoca Corp
et al.
8393351
3:22-cv-01365 Filed Aerie Pharmaceuticals Inc
Aerie Distribution Inc Aerie Pharmaceuticals Inc
Micro Labs 9993470
9931336
11028081
10654844
10174017
11197853
10588901
11185538
8394826
9415043
6:22-cv-00275 Filed Isix Ip LLC Dell Technologies
Boomi Inc
Dell Technologies Inc
Boomi Lp
6308178
6:22-cv-00276 Filed Arsus LLC Tesla Inc. 11077877
6:22-cv-00277 Filed Invicta Networks Inc Crowdstrike Holdings Inc 7010698
2:22-cv-01741 Filed Anadex Data Communications LLC [Equitable IP Corp.] Home Depot 7310120
1:22-cv-01371 Filed Chrome Cherry Limited The Partnerships And Unincorporated Associations Identified On Schedule A D843872
2:22-cv-00336 Filed Thompson Brothers Company LLC Meijer Stores Limited Partnership
Wholesale Merchandisers LLC
Meijer
D846218
8741068
3:22-cv-00144 Filed Thompson Brothers Company LLC Meijer Stores Limited Partnership
Wholesale Merchandisers LLC
Meijer
1:22-cv-00343 Filed Inno-sports Co Ltd Mattress Firm Holding 11103077
6:22-cv-06126 Filed Vertiv Corporation [Vertiv Holdings Co.] Opticool Technologies LLC 8261565
2:22-cv-00339 Filed Nuhn Industries Ltd Bazooka Farmstar LLC 10124638
9694636
10974557
10710422
1:22-cv-01536 Filed Beteiro LLC [Raymond Anthony Joao] Unibet International Ltd
Kindred Group PLC
Unibet Interactive Inc
Trannel International Ltd
6508709
6104815
10043341
6443841
9965920
10147266
6106815
10255755
6113493
2:22-cv-00078 Filed G Communications LLC Samsung Group 8761776
10594443
10736130
10448430
9184881
3:22-cv-01359 Filed Aerie Pharmaceuticals Inc
Aerie Distribution Inc [Aerie Pharmaceuticals Inc]
Gland Pharma Ltd 9931336
10588901
9415043
11185538
2:22-cv-00080 Filed Liberty Peak Ventures LLC [Dominion Harbor Enterprises, LLC] Comerica 6886101
7953671
8851369
8572712
9195985
8794509
2:22-cv-00082 Filed Soundstreak Texas LLC [Quest Patent Research Corporation] Parrot Inc 10726822
3:22-cv-00098 Filed Mastercraft Boat Co [Mastercraft Boat Holdings, Inc.] Malibu Boats LLC 11091230
3:22-cv-00099 Filed Mastercraft Boat Co [Mastercraft Boat Holdings, Inc.] Malibu Boats LLC 10922045
10241746
5:22-cv-01687 Filed Lubo Usa LLC
Bollegraaf Recycling Machinery Bv
Van Dyk Baler Corp
Lubo Systems Bv
Bollegraaf Patents And Brands Bv
Polymeric Technology Inc 10259011
1:22-cv-01351 Filed Pengshengxin Dianzi Limited
Shenzhenshi Tianhuakeji Youxian Gongsi
Rocket Innovations Inc 11001094
10232663
1:22-cv-00332 Filed Ddrops Company
Reinhold Vieth
Elaine Vieth
Mom Enterprises LLC Doing Business As Mommys Bliss 9066958
7:22-cv-00059 Filed Wellworx Energy Solutions LLC Oilify New-tech Solutions Inc 11199080
10605064
1:22-cv-00334 Filed Illumina Helmy Eltoukhy
Guardant Health Inc
Amirali Talasaz
10738364
10889858
10947600
10870880
10041127
9598731
11149307
10982265
11091797
10801063
11091796
11149306
10837063
10876171
10704085
10822663
10883139
10894974
9902992
10457995
9920366
10961592
9840743
10793916
10704086
11118221
10494678
10501808
10876152
10683556
10876172
9834822
10501810
10995376
11001899
1:22-cv-00335 Filed Alnylam Pharmaceuticals Inc Moderna Inc
Modernatx Inc
Moderna Us Inc
11246933
1:22-cv-01434 Filed Oakley Inc [EssilorLuxottica SA] The Partnerships And Unincorporated Associations Identified On Schedule A D719209
6:22-cv-00296 Filed Caselas LLC [Raymond Anthony Joao] Silicon Valley Bank 5010485A
5903830A
6047270A
5920847A
6128602A
5691524A
9117230
7529698
4774664A
5892900A
9117206
5783808A
9715691
8857710
5826241A
5532464A
10504122
5237159A
6115690A
7661585
8600855
5878337A
5715314A
6:22-cv-00274 Filed Mcom Ip LLC [Dynamic IP Deals, LLC] Cibc Bank Usa
2:22-cv-00389 Filed Pilot Incorporated Noco Company Incorporated 10604024
9525297
11235673
10328806
11104236
11124077
9007015
10046653
10875410
2:22-cv-01717 Filed Facet Technologies LLC Lifescan Inc
2:22-cv-00081 Filed Netnut Ltd [Safe-T Group Ltd.] Bright Data Ltd 10110606
2:22-cv-00084 Filed Soundstreak Texas LLC [Quest Patent Research Corporation] Drone Volt Sa 10726822
2:22-cv-00086 Filed Soundstreak Texas LLC [Quest Patent Research Corporation] Flyability Sa 10726822
1:22-cv-00327 Filed Cedar Lane Technologies Inc. [Intellectual Ventures] Firstech Inc 8165867
2:22-cv-01382 Filed The Regents Of The University Of California [University of Arizona]
Horizon Therapeutics Usa Inc [Horizon Therapeutics plc]
Horizon Orphan LLC [Horizon Therapeutics plc]
Teva Pharmaceutical 9192590
9233077
9173851
10143665
8026284
9198882
1:22-cv-00277 Filed Bmw Arigna Technology Limited 7049850
2:22-cv-00087 Filed Cedar Lane Technologies Inc. [Intellectual Ventures] Texas Instruments 6972790
8537242
2:22-cv-00088 Filed Litepanels Ltd [Vitec Group PLC] Godox Photo Equipment Co Ltd 7972022
7318652
7510290
6:22-cv-00279 Filed Lupercal LLC [IPValuation Partners, LLC] Bancorp South Bank 9386094
1:22-cv-00336 Filed Alnylam Pharmaceuticals Inc Pharmacia Upjohn Co LLC
Pfizer
11246933
1:22-cv-00344 Filed Cedar Lane Technologies Inc. [Intellectual Ventures] 3xlogic Inc 6972790
6473527
8537242
1:22-cv-00347 Filed Internet Media Interactive Corp Brightcove Inc 6049835
4:22-cv-00216 Filed Aml Ip LLC [Dynamic IP Deals, LLC] Bath Body Works LLC 6876979
6:22-cv-00294 Filed Caselas LLC [Raymond Anthony Joao] Comerica 5010485A
5903830A
6047270A
5920847A
6128602A
5691524A
9117230
7529698
4774664A
5892900A
9117206
5783808A
9715691
8857710
5826241A
5532464A
10504122
5237159A
6115690A
7661585
8600855
5878337A
5715314A

Image Source: Deposit Photos
Author: lightsource
Image ID: 159708306

Share

Warning & Disclaimer: The pages, articles and comments on IPWatchdog.com do not constitute legal advice, nor do they create any attorney-client relationship. The articles published express the personal opinion and views of the author as of the time of publication and should not be attributed to the author’s employer, clients or the sponsors of IPWatchdog.com. Read more.

Join the Discussion

No comments yet.