This seminar provides an in-depth examination of one of the most consequential agencies of the U.S. Government for the enforcement of IP—the U.S. International Trade Commission (ITC). U.S. IP rights are estimated to be worth $5 trillion, or about a quarter of the U.S.’s gross domestic output. The ITC is at the epicenter of litigation for patent disputes—not only in the U.S. but also disputes originating between companies around the globe, adjudicating cases involving billions of dollars in product value. Section 337 of the Tariff Act of 1930 grants the ITC extraterritorial power to remedy unfair competition. In recent years, one in seven U.S. patent trials takes place at the ITC—more than in any district court. Unlike the courts, the ITC has jurisdiction based simply on the products being present in the U.S. ITC cases also move more quickly than the courts. These details present both important challenges and opportunities to stakeholders in the IP world.